Arain Traders New Zealand Limited, started the online training for the below-listed course.

1. iOS, window base computers, Laptops, desktops, basic troubleshooting, Hardware/software.
2. Android and Apple smartphones basic to board repairing training.
3. Digital Transformation

All training includes the latest training material and online training, we have highly qualified technicians and trainers, We design the course from basic concept to advance training.

Digital Transformation

The concept behind digital transformation is how to use technology to remake a process so that it becomes more efficient or effective. It’s not just about changing an existing service into a digital version but improving it. Digital Transformation refers to an overall transformation of organizational activities aimed at leveraging opportunities created by digital technologies and data. This requires companies to profoundly transform their business models.

Digital transformation poses many challenges, but it also creates an abundance of new opportunities for your job and your company. Becoming a digital enterprise requires far more profound changes than merely investing in the latest technologies. It calls for change in:

THE FOURTH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. 

Nowhere is the upheaval of the Fourth Industrial Revolution more likely to be felt than in the workplace. As with previous industrial revolutions, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will profoundly affect people’s lives as AI and increased automation see many types of jobs disappear. At the same time, entirely new categories of jobs are emerging.

As the Fourth Industrial Revolution reshapes the future of work, businesses must prepare their people for the new world that lies ahead. This often means an increased focus on continual learning, building more on-ramps to new types of jobs, and a commitment to diversity.

Big Data & Cloud Services

The concept gained momentum in the early 2000s when industry analyst Doug Laney articulated the now-mainstream definition of big data as the three Vs:

iOT

Cyber Security

Fields of Cyber Security
The term Cyber Security applies in a variety of contexts, from business to mobile computing, and can be divided into a few common categories:

Cyber Attacks and Cyber Security Threats
Common methods attackers use to control computers or networks include viruses, worms, spyware, Trojans, and ransomware. Viruses and worms can self-replicate and damage files or systems without the user’s knowledge, while spyware and Trojans are often used for surreptitious data collection. Ransomware waits for an opportunity to encrypt all the user’s information and demands payment to return access to the user. Malicious code often spreads via an unsolicited email attachment or a legitimate-looking download that actually carries a malware payload.

Social engineering is the process of psychologically manipulating people into performing actions or giving away information. Phishing attacks are the most common form of social engineering. Phishing attacks usually come in the form of a deceptive email that tricks the user into giving away personal information. Not always easy to distinguish from genuine messages, these scams can inflict enormous damage on organizations.

Two more advanced threads are DDoS and MITM:

  • A Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack attempts to disrupt normal web traffic and take a site offline by flooding a system or server with more requests than it can handle.
  • A Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack occurs when a hacker inserts themselves between a visitor’s device and a server. MITM attacks often happen when a user logs on to an insecure Wi-Fi network. The user will then unknowingly pass information through the attacker.

Finally, using outdated (unpatched) software opens up opportunities for criminal hackers to take advantage of vulnerabilities to bring entire systems down. A zero-day attack can occur when a vulnerability is made public before a patch or solution has been rolled out by the developer.

Follow these four steps for cyber safety:

  • Only trust https-URLs! Only use trusted sites when providing your personal information. A good rule of thumb is to check the URL. If the site includes “https://,” then it’s a secure site. If the URL includes “http://,” — note the missing “s” — avoid entering sensitive information like your credit card data.
  • Don’t open unknown attachments/links! Don’t open email attachments or click links in emails from unknown sources. One of the most common ways people are attacked is through emails disguised as being sent by someone you trust.
  • Keep your devices updated! Always keep your devices updated. Software updates contain important patches to fix security issues. Cyberattacks thrive on outdated devices because they don’t have the most current security software. 
  • Regularly back up your files! Back up your files regularly to prevent cybersecurity attacks. If you need to wipe your device clean due to a cyberattack, it will help to have your files stored in a safe, separate place.

The most effective strategy to mitigating and minimizing the effects of a cyber-attack is to build a solid foundation upon which to grow your cybersecurity technology stack. A solid cybersecurity foundation will identify these gaps and propose the appropriate action to take to mitigate the risk of an attack, enabling you to build a robust cybersecurity strategy.

Artificial Intelligence

AI refers to computer systems built to mimic human intelligence and perform tasks such as recognition of images, speech or patterns, and decision making. AI can do these tasks faster and more accurately than humans.

  • Weak AI – also called Narrow AI – is able to handle just one particular task. Examples include an email spam filtering tool or a recommended playlist from Spotify. Weak AI is the only form of Artificial Intelligence that humanity has achieved so far.
  • Strong AI – also called General AI – could handle various tasks. It is comparatively as intelligent as the human brain. Unlike weak AI, it can learn and improve itself.
  • Super AI is a term referring to the time when the capability of computers will surpass humans. Super AI can think about abstractions that are impossible for humans to understand.

What is Machine Learning?
Machine Learning is a subset of AI. With Machine Learning, computers are programmed to learn to do something they are not programmed to do: They literally learn by discovering patterns and insights from data. For example, social media platforms use machine learning to get a better understanding of how you’re connected with those in your social network. They do this by analyzing your likes, shares, and comments and then prioritizing content from your closest connections, serving you that content first.

What is Deep Learning?
Deep Learning is a specialized form of machine learning that teaches computers to do what comes naturally to humans: learn by example. Deep learning is a key technology behind driverless cars, enabling them to recognize a stop sign or to distinguish a pedestrian from a lamppost. In deep learning, a computer model learns to perform classification tasks directly from images, text, or sound. Deep learning models can achieve state-of-the-art accuracy, sometimes exceeding human-level performance. Models are trained by using a large set of labeled data and neural network architectures that contain many layers.

Blockchain

Many people know it as the technology behind Bitcoin, but blockchain’s potential uses extend far beyond digital currencies. Banks and firms are falling over one another to be the first to work out how to use it. So what exactly is blockchain, and why are Wall Street and Silicon Valley so excited about it?

What is blockchain?
Currently, most people use a trusted middleman – such as a bank – to make a transaction. But blockchain allows consumers and suppliers to connect directly, removing the need for a third party. Using cryptography to keep exchanges secure, blockchain provides a decentralized database, or “digital ledger”, of transactions that everyone on the network can see. This network is essentially a chain of computers that must all approve an exchange before it can be verified and recorded. To sum it up, a blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography.

Key attributes. 

1. Decentralization

Before Bitcoin came along, we were more used to centralized services: You have a centralized entity that stored all the data and you’d have to interact solely with this entity. In a decentralized system, the information is not stored by one single entity. In fact, everyone in the network owns the information.

2. Transparency

Every person’s identity is hidden via complex cryptography and represented only by their public address. While the person’s real identity is secure, you will still see all the transactions that were done by their public address. This level of transparency has never existed before within a financial system.

3. Immutability

Immutability, in the context of the blockchain, means that once something has been entered into the blockchain, it cannot be tampered with. This makes blockchains so highly reliable and trailblazing.

Printed Circuit Boards

For the majority of electrical boards, the name “printed circuit board” is used, or “PCB” for short. In the past, PCBs were manufactured through a complex process that consisted of detailed wiring on specific points. During this process, the circuits were left exposed and hence vulnerable to damage. It was only with the development of safer, more advanced design methods that the process reached the standards of security that are used in PCB manufacturing today.

The following four components are present on most of today’s printed circuit boards — copper, fiberglass substrate, silkscreen and solder mask. In the earlier years of the technology, PCBs consisted of one layer. By contrast, contemporary PCBs consist of multiple layers, which are necessary to accommodate today’s complex circuitry.

In newer PCBs, numerous high-pitch parts are included but not identified on the boards. Consequently, the methods required to troubleshoot and repair today’s PCBs is more complicated than ever. On circuit boards of the 1980s and ’90s, it was possible to perform repairs with the use of automatic testing tools, which simply do not work on today’s PCBs.

Troubleshooting on Old PCBs

On older printed circuit boards, the techniques used for troubleshooting were performed in a variety of ways, including the following:

  • Inspection of the solder joints
  • Identification of the problem
  • Troubleshooting of specific parts
  • Inspection of the integrated circuits
  • Consultation of the software manual
  • Inspection with a microscope
  • Tests of the functionality

The majority of these tests are ineffective at troubleshooting the types of problems that occur on newer printed circuit boards. In response to these newer challenges, today’s PCBs receive a more complex analysis.

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Analog Signature Analysis

A component can be tested with the use of two probes and a sine wave. On the liquid crystal display (LCD), you will see the voltage, currents and phase shifts. The current is on the y-axis, while voltage is on the x-axis, you can see the resultant trace on the LCD screen.

How to Diagnose Problems With a PCB

Before you actually go about with repair work on a printed circuit board, you must first pinpoint the root of the problem. Diagnostic work on a faulty PCB is carried out in the following stages:

  • Identify the problem with the use of a VI instrument. The alternating voltage is used to test the unidentified pin count.
  • The next step is to identify the location of the problem. This requires examinations at a microscopic level to find the troubled elements.

Lastly, the faulty part is removed from the circuit board, and a replacement part is put in its place.

Replacement of a PC Board

How to Analyse the Results of PCB Diagnostics

The components in an electrical circuit are arranged in one of the following three combinations — mixed, parallel or series. Since it is usually impossible to pinpoint the signature, the easiest way

to approach an analysis is to compare the faulty PCB with a functional one of the same make. This way, you can see the common signatures.

To compare signatures, you must examine the similarities between all defective printed circuit boards and then contrast those to the PCBs that are free of problems. With each component, the current, inductance, resistance and voltage of each component needs to be computed and contrasted to each signature of the faulty printed circuit board to determine what is wrong with the latter.

Clear away deposits of dry or partially worn off solder if any is present on the faulty PCB. This will refresh the points and make it easier to inspect the signature.

With the numerous amount of tracks on a printed circuit board, there is a high likelihood that certain tracks will incur damage during the examination process. To remedy any damage that results during these steps, jumper wire is a helpful tool for track repair.

During the final step, each pin is tested to determine its functionality. If the output and input of a pin conform to the specs of the data sheet, that means the pin is in good condition. If not, it must be removed.

How to Fix a PCB

When a device is disconnected from a PCB, pads will often get damaged as a result. This is because the PCB and circuit frame library share joined traces which are cut from one another when a device is removed from a printed circuit board. However, it is possible to fix the affected SMT land/trace combinations.

When you sit down to fix a printed circuit board, you should have the following materials at hand:

  • C-clamps (small)
  • Circuit frame
  • Dental picks
  • Flux
  • Isopropyl alcohol
  • Kapton™ tape
  • Knife
  • Microscope
  • Orange sticks
  • Solder
  • Soldering iron
  • Wipes

Additionally, you need an ESD-safe surface for cutting.

Steps to Fix and Troubleshoot PCBs

Step #1. Clean the PCB

Use isopropyl alcohol to clean the affected part of the PCB. Once the area is clean, dry away the alcohol with compressed air.

Step #2. Take off the Damaged Pad

Use an Exacto knife to gently peel off the damaged, pre-existing pad.

Step #3. Clear Away Laminate Around the Pad

If you see any burnt laminate on the area in question, be sure to remove it before you proceed.

Step #4. Remove Old Solder Mask

Take a dental pick and use it to eliminate lingering solder mask on the conductor.

Step #5. Clean With Alcohol

With isopropyl alcohol, wipe the spot and blow it dry with compressed air. Alternately, you can use a cloth as long as it has no lint.

Step #6. Prepare the Conductor

With proper solder alloy in hand, prepare the conductor area on the spot where the replacement conductor will be affixed.

Step #7. Examine and Choose the Appropriate Circuit Frame

From the available choices on the circuit frame, choose your new conductor. Remove your selection from the circuit frame with a small knife.

Step #8. Prepare the New Pad/Conductor

With a suitably alloyed solder, cover the spot on the new conductor that will face the old trace. Next, prepare your epoxy. Given that the epoxy will only be good for about 45 minutes, it is best to prepare only small portions at a time. Apply the epoxy mixture to the printed circuit board. To speed up the bonding process, place in open air. You can also cure the joined pieces in an oven.

Step #9. Solder the New Pad/Trace to the Old Conductor

Using Kapton™ tape, put the new conductor into place.

Step #10. Hold and Dry

Clamp the new pad in its spot for the duration of time that it takes to cure. Once finished, take off the clamp. At this stage in the process, it is also wise to conduct a brief inspection of the electrical continuity. It might also help to place solder mask around the pad edges and allow it to dry for additional strength.

Common Issues With PCBs

To repair a PCB pad or another circuit board component, you must first pinpoint the problem. There are several manufacturing defects possible that can render a PCB faulty, including the following:

Issue #1. Plating Gaps

Electricity passes from one end of a PCB to the other through holes coated with copper, also known as plated thru-holes. These holes are formed with fabricator drills, which manufacturers use to carefully puncture the surface of circuit boards. An electroplating process is then performed to line each hole with copper.

Even though the process is generally reliable, it can have its imperfections. If difficulties occur while the deposition is in progress, it could result in gaps along the plating. This can render the PCB worthless because electricity won’t pass if gaps in the copper are present.

Gaps are typically formed by the presence of air bubbles or contaminants during the deposition process. Plating gaps can be prevented if the newly drilled PCB board is properly cleaned in advance of electroplating. Furthermore, it is important for makers to pay close attention to the movement of the drill as the hole is being created.

Specifically, there is a certain number of drill hits to be performed at a specific speed, and anything outside those specifications could damage the circuit board. As such, it is crucial to hire the services of an advanced, reputed PCB maker when you need printed circuit boards.

Issue #2. Raw-Cut Copper at the Edge

The high conductivity of copper makes it an ideal metal for printed circuit boards. That said, copper does have its weaknesses, namely its softness and susceptibility to rust. To safeguard copper from the external effects that can lead to corrosion on a copper surface, the metal needs to be coated with a protective material.

However, despite the protective intent of copper coating, if copper is exposed at the edge while a circuit board undergoes the trimming stage, the copper will get cut and left exposed without that coating. More dangerously, if two raw copper planes come into contact and touch a conductive material at the same time, a short will result. A PCB in this state is also liable to emit an electrical shock upon contact.

Issue #3. Slivers

When PCBs undergo the fabrication process, thin slivers of solder mask or copper are among the possible byproducts. There are two scenarios that allow for these wedges to form:

  • If long strips of copper are etched and a sliver comes undone before enough time has passed for it to dissolve. The sliver could possibly fall into a chemical bath and get passed onto another board.
  • If a portion of a printed circuit board is cut either too wide or too narrow.

Either possibility could seriously corrupt the functionality of a PCB. Slivers can leave plating exposed that would otherwise be protected with solder mask. Alternately, slivers could end up connecting two different sections of copper. Both scenarios are liable to reduce the life of a printed circuit board.

Issue #4. Incomplete Solder Mask Between Pads

The layer above the copper on a PCB is the solder mask. The purpose of solder mask is to keep the copper safeguarded from foreign metals or conductive elements. Solder mask also protects the copper from potentially corrosive exposure to the environment. Furthermore, solder mask protects handlers from the possibility of electrical shock.

There is a part of the metal that is left exposed on a circuit board. This is known as a pad. The pad is where foreign parts are soldered to during the assembly of a PCB. However, solder mask is sometimes either incomplete or missing entirely between two facing pads. In addition to leaving copper exposed, this can create unintended contact between pins.

Incomplete or missing solder mask is typically the result of a manufacturer’s oversight. If the application dimensions for solder mask are miscalculated during production, pad holes are bound to be incorrectly sized, thus rendering the PCBs unusable.

Issue #5. Acid Traps

When acid is captured at narrow angles in a circuit during the etching phase of PCB production, the problem is known as an “acid trap.” Due to the acute angles of such traps, the acid is held longer than necessary. Consequently, the acid can render a circuit defective and lead to further issues down the line. In most cases, acid traps occur when oversights are made during production.

Issue #6. Starved Thermals

Thermals are placed around pads to disperse heat. As a board undergoes the soldering process, thermals play a critical role. However, if a thermal is applied inconsistently, the PCB could ultimately have connectivity issues.

Insufficient thermals stall the process of heat transference between the pads and planes. This, in turn, can make it difficult to solder a board correctly. When constructed under these conditions, the PCB is liable to overheat once it is put to use. However, experts can diagnose and correct this potential problem.



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